This number is likely to more than double by according to the projection of WHO. This more than twofold global increase will occur swelling in retina due to diabetes of population ageing and growth, as well as from obesity, unhealthy diets and a sedentary lifestyle. These latter factors are closely associated with urbanization and industrialization.
Other complications of diabetes include infections, metabolic difficulties, impotence, autonomic neuropathy and pregnancy problems.
Diabetes ödéma lábmasszázs Mi jobban segít a cukorbetegségben Purpose: Diabetic macular edema DME is the most common cause of moderate visual disability in persons of working age in the United States.
Diabetic microvascular complications result from damage to the small blood vessels in the nerves, eyes and kidneys, and eventually lead to loss of function in these tissues. The walls of the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, followed by bleeding, leakage of protein which slows the flow of blood to the cells.
Photo fundus diabetes mellitus
If undetected and untreated, these complications can potentially lead to severe organ damage possibly resulting in limb amputation, blindness, and kidney failure. When the kidneys are damaged, protein leaks out of the kidneys into the urine.
Damaged kidneys can no longer remove waste and extra fluids from the bloodstream. Overt nephropathy is characterized by 2, 3 progressive decline in renal function resulting in end stage renal disease. Neuropathy is a heterogenious condition that is associated with nerve pathology. The three major forms in people with diabetes are peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy.
The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which affects mainly 2, 3 In the eye, diabetes may affect almost all anatomical structures: diabetic keratopathy may develop, cataract formation is more rapid and the retina may suffer severe damage 2, 4 leading to the decline and finally the loss of vision.
The most serious eye condition associated with diabetes involves the retina and more specifically, the network of blood vessels lying within it. The abnormalities that characterise diabetic retinopathy occur in predictable progression with minor variations in the order of their appearance. Diabetic retinopathy is considered to be the result of vascular changes in the retinal circulation. In the early stages vascular occlusion and dilations occur.
It progresses into a proliferative retinopathy with the growth of new blood vessels. Macular edema the thickening of the central part of the retina can significantly decrease visual acuity.
Figure 1. Color fundus image left and Fluorescein Angiography FLA late phase image right of an eye with moderate diabetic retinopathy and severe diabetic maculopathy.
On the color fundus image retinal hemorrhages and microaneurysms can be seen, while the white-colored hard exudates are indicative of diabetic macular edema. On the late phase of the FLA diffuse leakage can be seen in the macula with several microaneurysms scattered around the entire retina.
- Dr. Gábor Márk Somfai - Semmelweis Egyetem Doktori Iskola
- Mi a látás 120%
- Osteonecrosis diabetikus retinopátia Diabétesz jelentések és iskola General Osteonecrosis bespeaks bone death.
- Двумя часами позднее они, к собственному удовлетворению, покинули планету.
- Video oktatóanyagok a látás helyreállításához
Specifically, diabetic maculopathy is very common in people with more severe background DRP. In diabetic maculopathy, fluid rich in fat and cholesterol leaks out of damaged vessels. If the fluid accumulates near the center of the retina the macula there will be distortion of central vision. If too much fluid and cholesterol accumulates in the macula, it can cause permanent loss of central vision.
Howewer, one of the main requirements in routine clinical assessment of diabetic maculopathy is for quantitative parameters, also as an objective basis for assessing the efficacy of therapy. The Early Treatment Retinopathy Study ETDRS criteria for classification swelling in retina due to diabetes macular edema are based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy of macular thickening, independently of the angiographic findings.
This classification arose from the need for quantification, but is still not a complete solution, since basically it only distinguishes between two major types of macular edema: Clinically Significant Macular Edema CSME and non-CSME. This is one of the main reasons why ophthalmic imaging techniques are developing so incredibly fast, enabling the assessment of more and more details down to a single photoreceptor cell.
Optical coherence tomography OCT is one of the fields where state-of-the-art technology meets clinical demands, helping the clinician ophthalmologist with swelling in retina due to diabetes new dimension of medical thinking: the high resolution cross-sectional plane of the retina.
Thus, the longitudinal location of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures.
The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry.
szemtorna progresszív rövidlátással
Light reflected from deeper layers has a longer propagation delay than light reflected from more superficial layers. Low coherence means that the system employs a wide range of wavelengths.
The most straightforward and currently the most common interferometer for OCT is a simple Michelson interferometer see Fig. Light retro-reflected from the reference and the sample is recombined at the beam splitter and half is collected by a photodetector in the detection arm of the interferometer.
Half of the light is returned towards the source, where it is lost.
Photo fundus diabetes mellitus
In addition, the reference arm light is typically attenuated by orders of magnitude in order to improve signal to noise ratio.
Schematic drawing of the principle of OCT emphasizing how it is essentially a Michelson interferometer. The outgoing light paths are solid lines, while reflected light is drawn as dashed lines. The axial resolution of an OCT image depends on the coherence length which is a fundamental property of the light source, whereas transverse resolution for OCT imaging is determined by focused spot size, as in microscopy.
By rapidly varying the reference arm mirror and synchronously recording the magnitude of the resulting interference signal, a single axial profile or A-scan is obtained which is a graph of the optical reflectivity versus distance in the eye. A sequence of such A-scans is obtained by scanning the probe beam across the entire retina which forms a B-scan tomogram.
More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of Retinal edema.
As a result, a cross-sectional view of the structure similar to a histology section is obtained. The method and also its display in originally greyscale pixels is very similar to that of ultrasound, with the exception that light is used for imaging purposes rather than light, leading to the above mentioned advantages of resolution resulting from a shorter wavelength. OCT can be used for retinal imaging and anterior segment imaging.
The OCT for ophthalmic examination is similar to a slit lamp for anterior segment imaging and a fundus camera for retinal imaging.
The instrumentation includes a video display for operator viewing of the anterior segment or fundus while obtaining the OCT images and a simultaneous computer display of the tomograms. Images are stored via computer for the diagnostic record. Strong reflections occur 10 between two materials of different refractive indices and from a tissue that has a high scattering coefficient along with a disposition to scatter light in the perfectly backward torz látás okai. In most tissues, main sources of reflection are collagen fiber bundles, cell walls, and cell nuclei.
Dark areas on the image represent homogeneous material with low reflectivity, such as air or clear fluids. The imaging light is attenuated in the sample, so there is an exponential decrease in the intensity of the image with depth.
Dr. Gábor Márk Somfai - Semmelweis Egyetem Doktori Iskola
Blood attenuates the signal faster than collagenous tissues, fat and fluids attenuate the signal the least. Figure 3. OCT image of the normal human macula. A Ultrahigh resolution OCT image showing the various cellular layers of the retina.
B Comparison of the OCT image same as shown in A to a histologic micrograph of the normal human macula. Image taken from ref. High backscatter appears red-orange and low backscatter appears blue-black see Fig. Thus, cellular layers with different reflectivity are displayed in different colors.
Methods: In this retrospective study, fundus photo re. This study aimed to determine the predisposing factors for PDR that were identified by fundus photography among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DM] at the Diabetic Clinic at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia Methods: in this retrospective study, fundus photo review was performed on patients with type 2 DM who had undergone diabetic retinopathy screening using a nonmydriatic fundus. A fovea jól.